The treatment of renal calculi has undergone significant changes over the last decade. The endo-urologist has a large
armamentarium of treatment options. The advent of ESWL, along with improvements in fiberoptic technology and video equipment
has virtually eliminated the need for open stone surgery. In an era of minimally invasive surgery, the use of ureteroscopy,
Lithotripsy, and Percutaneous procedures has expanded the use of endoscopic management of renal stones. Continued progress in
Lithotripsy technology, advances in endoscopic techniques and refinements in medical management will improve our ability to
choose the appropriate treatments for renal calculi in an era of cost confinement.